With the rising popularity of CBD everything, CBD isolates are something you might have heard about. If you want a guide to using CBD isolate, we’ve got you covered. We’re well aware that CBD isolate looks nothing like other CBD products you might be used to. Here’s the thing, though — this crystalline, powder form of Although it comes in different formats, how to take CBD doesn't have to be complicated. Learn more about the options and decide which one is best for you. If you’ve used CBD before, you may be wondering what the label means if it says “CBD Isolate”. It’s not too complicated — let’s take a look.
The Ultimate Guide to Using CBD Isolate
With the rising popularity of CBD everything, CBD isolates are something you might have heard about. If you want a guide to using CBD isolate , we’ve got you covered.
We’re well aware that CBD isolate looks nothing like other CBD products you might be used to. Here’s the thing, though — this crystalline, powder form of CBD is the purest form of CBD available. Some of the highest quality CBD isolates are 99+% pure CBD.
So, what is CBD isolate exactly? How does it differ from other CBD products? Why should you care? And how exactly do you use CBD isolate? Let’s take a look.
What Is CBD Isolate?
Isolate is defined as: “a person or thing that has been or becomes isolated.”
CBD isolate is just what it sounds like — CBD that has been isolated from all other compounds in the cannabis plant. Put simply, CBD isolate is the purest form of CBD you can get.
CBD isolate is a crystalline powder that is 99% pure CBD. It is sourced from hemp, but all matter from the hemp plant is removed. This includes waxes, oils, other phytocannabinoids (such as THC), chlorophyll and more. What’s left is a crystalline powder.
How Is Cannabidiol Isolate Made?
To get CBD out of hemp, it must go through an extraction process. CBD extraction methods have come a long way in the past few years, with state-of-the-art extraction methods now mainstream in a market that’s become one of the most popular in existence.
In order to make CBD isolate, it must go through a more complex extraction process once initial extraction has taken place. After regular extraction, several compounds of the hemp plant remain in the extracted oil, with the final product typically referred to as “broad spectrum” or “full spectrum” CBD oil. At this point, it contains the other cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids found in the hemp plant.
To produce CBD isolate, additional processing that removes any residual plant material and unwanted compounds must take place. After the initial extraction process, the extracted oil goes through a second purification process where any remaining plant material is filtered out.
Following this filtration process, the extracted oil goes through a process known as “winterization.” Basically, winterization is an alcohol wash that involves soaking the CBD extract in alcohol and freezing it. This process helps to separate pure CBD from all the other residual products that remain in the oil.
Following winterization, several rounds of rotary evaporation ensue to remove any remaining residual material still present in the extracted, winterized oil. This extract is then decarboxylated and converted into a crystalline powder form using a propriety processing technique.
The result? Pure, crystalized CBD.
This Isolate Contains NO THC
One of the major reasons CBD isolate has become so popular is that it contains ZERO THC.
While many people are under the assumption that CBD doesn’t contain any THC, there are still some trace amounts in many full spectrum CBD products, which can be sold as long as there is less than 0.3% THC. While this small amount of THC isn’t enough to cause a psychoactive effect, it has a slight potential to show up in a person’s system.
CBD isolate is a great choice for anyone sensitive to even trace amounts of THC, as well as anyone who could benefit from CBD but otherwise can’t ingest THC for any reason.
Everything You Need to Know About Using CBD Isolate
Now that you know just what CBD isolate is and how it’s made, you can decide if this particular form of CBD might be right for your personal needs.
Don’t let its powder form fool you! Even though CBD isolate looks nothing like other forms of CBD, it can work just as well.
CBD isolate is easy to use and one of the most versatile forms of CBD you can find. Interested in how to use it? Look no further. Following are 7 easy (and fun) ways to use CBD isolate and benefit from cannabidiol in its purest form.
7 Ways to Use CBD Isolate
- Place it Right in Your Mouth — Looking for the absolute easiest way possible to use CBD isolate? Simply place it in your mouth to dissolve. This method works just like taking a regular CBD tincture. One of the best things is that CBD isolate is both tasteless and odorless. Easy breezy.
- Add it to Juice or a Smoothie — If you want a little more excitement, add your CBD isolate to juice or a smoothie. Just measure out the exact serving you desire and stir or shake into your juice or blend it right in with other ingredients in your blender. Adding CBD isolate to your juice or smoothie simply adds to an already healthy option.
- Put it in Coffee or Tea — By far one of our favorite ways to use CBD isolate is by putting it in our coffee. Yes, like many of you, we’re java junkies. Our bulletproof coffee recipe is one of our faves and can easily be made with CBD isolate. You can also stir it into your regular cup of morning (or afternoon) joe, where it will mix so well you won’t even know it’s in there. For all you tea drinkers, you can also add your desired amount of CBD isolate to your cup of hot tea, stir well and enjoy the extra benefits it brings.
- Create CBD-Infused Meals — If you’re someone who likes to consume CBD in the edible form (or just get crafty in the kitchen), CBD isolate can be added to pretty much anything you eat. Stir it into sauces, soups, stir-fries and dressings, blend it into brownie batter, or sprinkle some on your salad. Just measure out your desired amount and add it to whatever culinary masterpiece you choose to create. Be careful not to heat it up too much, though, or it could lose its potency.
- Create Your Own CBD Sweetener — Speaking of creating culinary masterpieces, CBD isolate can also be used to make your own CBD sweetener. Our favorite way is to blend it in with some local, organic honey or stir it into stevia. You could also add CBD isolate to your syrup to drizzle over pancakes, waffles and French toast.
- DIY CBD Topicals — A really fun way to use CBD isolate is to make your own CBD topicals. Known to provide localized effects, topicals are a great way to support healthy joints and muscles. There are plenty of resources online that can teach you how to make your own CBD-infused topicals. So whether you prefer a CBD salve, lotion or cream and you like to get down on some DIY recipes, CBD isolate is an awesome addition for anything you decide to create.
- Make Your Own CBD Pet Treats — CBD isn’t just beneficial for humans; our pets can also be impacted by CBD. In fact, using CBD for pets is becoming increasingly common. Why not give your furry friend a treat homemade by you with love? CBD isolate can be added to any pet treat recipe and can help to boost your furry friend’s quality of life.
As you can see, there are huge benefits to CBD isolate use. It’s CBD in its purest form. While you won’t get the entourage effect of a broad spectrum CBD product, CBD isolate does contain all the benefits of CBD without trace amounts of THC.
One of the best things about CBD isolate is that you get more bang for your buck. A little CBD isolate goes a long way and, in the long run, can help save you some money, especially if you’re someone who regularly uses CBD. Think of it like this. One gram of CBD isolate typically contains about 990mg of CBD. For everyone one milligram of powder you consume, you’re getting right around one milligram of CBD.
This odorless, tasteless, pure form of CBD can be enjoyed by anyone and is just about as versatile as it comes. Still have questions about CBD isolate? We’re always here to help.
Thanks for reading! To show how much we appreciate you, we’re going to give you 16% off your next order. Just use code READER16 at checkout!
Hannah Smith is Joy Organics Director of Communications. She is driven by her passion for providing clear and accessible wellness and CBD education. In 2015, she received her BA in Media, Culture and the Arts from The King’s College in New York City and before Joy Organics, worked as writer and photographer in the Middle East and North Africa. Her work has been featured on Forbes, Vice, Vox, Denver Post, and the Coloradoan.
How to Take CBD: A Guide to CBD Oil, Tincture & Powder
You want to see what CBD can do for you, but you’re confused about how to take CBD. There are just so many options. Should you take a CBD oil or powder? Are tinctures better than gummies? And what is a tincture anyway? If only taking CBD was as easy as drinking a glass of water.
It turns out that figuring out how to take CBD doesn’t have to be complicated. It all comes down to taste and effectiveness. Taste is just what flavors you prefer (and for many, herbaceous hemp isn’t a preferred flavor). Effectiveness is predicated upon your body’s ability to absorb and make use of the CBD, also known as bioavailability. Different methods of CBD delivery offer different absorption rates. Higher bioavailability means it’s easier for your body to access and use more of a product’s CBD.
In case you’re wondering, no, CBD won’t get you high. THC is the only cannabinoid that has psychoactive effects.
CBD is one of the 113 cannabinoids found in the hemp plant.
Full-spectrum hemp products include all of these, including trace amounts of THC (less than .3%). To get CBD without THC, you need a CBD isolate. “Isolating” the CBD strips away all of the other compounds.
In case you’re wondering, no, CBD won’t get you high. THC is the only cannabinoid that has psychoactive effects.
There are two common forms of CBD isolate —oil, and powder. You can take them as tinctures, pills, edibles… the list goes on. We have an obvious favorite (more on that later). But the best way to take CBD is the method that works for you.
HOW TO TAKE CBD TINCTURE
A CBD tincture is basically CBD suspended in MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oil, alcohol or vinegar, which acts as a carrier. Do you swallow CBD? Yes, after you’ve let it sit under your tongue. To take it, place a single drop of the CBD tincture under your tongue. This is sometimes difficult to do. Hold it there for about 60 seconds. Then swallow. This is called a sublingual (under the tongue) application. Spitting it out prior to holding it under your tongue means you might not get the full dosage.
Studies have shown that a sublingual CBD tincture can offer 13-19% bioavailability. Some sources claim up to 35%, but we’d like to see more research on that. One downside is that tinctures often contain impurities such as pesticides and heavy metals, which often remain in the product beyond the production process. Other drawbacks are difficulty of use, dosage inconsistency, and its herbaceous taste. CBD tincture is known to be a bit (actually a lot) bitter in flavor. While some people don’t mind it, many find the taste off-putting.
CBD CAPSULES AND EDIBLES
Capsules and edibles deliver CBD in ways that are easy to consume.
Follow the recommendations of the manufacturer to decide how many capsules or gummies you should take per day. CBD dosage depends on your body size, activity level, and health goals, as well as the concentration of CBD in the capsule or edible. Pay close attention to manufacturer recommendations and only use a product that is third-party tested to make sure you’re getting consistent dosing, and that the product is free of toxins or pesticides. If the manufacturer won’t share a third-party test, don’t use that product.
These ingestible forms of CBD offer somewhere between 6-20% bioavailability. The exact number depends on concentration, other ingredients, and your body chemistry. In general, capsules tend to offer the lowest bioavailability. On the other hand, gummies may have that earthy flavor we mentioned before.
One thing to keep in mind about edibles: this CBD product category is the most prone to adulteration, as demonstrated through random testing conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) showing little or no CBD content in some brands.
VAPING AND SMOKING: NOT RECOMMENDED
You can do this, but why would you? We all know that smoking is bad for you. There have been plenty of studies proving it. The long-term health effects of vaping are under investigation , and there’s reason to believe they’re not great. With so many other ways to take CBD, this one just doesn’t seem like the best option.
TOPICAL CBD CREAMS AND LOTIONS
Creams and lotions are rubbed directly on the skin.
They are often designed to soothe pain or inflammation. Just take a glob of lotion or cream and rub it directly on the skin. The main benefit of creams and lotions is also their major drawback: they are highly targeted. That means you may feel immediate (or at least speedy) effects at the application site. Yet, they probably won’t improve your overall wellbeing.
HOW TO TAKE CBD ISOLATE POWDER IN DRINKS
Now we come to our favorite way to get the benefits of CBD. Water-soluble CBD powder can be mixed in your favorite drinks without changing their flavor. A third party tester makes sure that every batch is consistent. Plus, CBD isolate powder delivers up to 5x greater bioavailability than tinctures or edible. CBD isolate powders are much more effective than other ways to take CBD.
Water-soluble CBD powder has no earthy taste. Mix unflavored Zolt Even with your favorite beverage without altering the flavor. Or jazz things up with a flavored mixie stick that tastes like coconut, lemon tea, or honey citrus. You can also choose a full-spectrum mixie, to get all 113 cannabinoids. Just remember full-spectrum CBD powder does have trace amounts of THC.
Whether you choose flavored or unflavored, isolate or full-spectrum, CBD powder is easy to take. Open a pack of powdered CBD isolate, dump it into your favorite tea (for a CBD tea), fruit juice, or water. Mix thoroughly to make sure those adaptogens really get moving. Gulp it down and get ready to have an awesome day.
As always, Zolt advises that you discuss with your doctor before starting a hemp regimen.
What is CBD Isolate? Uses, Health Benefits, Effects
In short, CBD isolate is a pure extract that contains cannabidiol without any additional cannabinoids or terpenes.
There’s much more to it than that, though.
This article will look at what CBD isolate is, how it compares to other extracts, and how it can benefit you.
What is CBD Isolate?
CBD isolate, unlike full and broad spectrum CBD, is a pure extract of the cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD). Isolate products contain only cannabidiol without any other cannabinoids and terpenes naturally found in the hemp plant.
CBD isolates are great for people that want to try CBD but don’t want to ingest the psychoactive cannabinoid THC. If you’ve had bad experiences with full or broad spectrum CBD products, isolates may be what works for you.
Isolates work by influencing cannabinoid receptors in the body’s endocannabinoid system. When CBD interacts with these receptors, it can influence many different bodily functions.
The Benefits of CBD Isolate
When CBD isolate is used, it can affect the body in many ways.
CBD specifically interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system . The interaction with this complex cell signaling system can benefit people in several ways:
1. CBD Eases Anxiety, Depression, and Stress
CBD has excellent benefits on the mind. Several studies have shown that CBD alone may ease anxiety, depression, stress, and even PTSD in some people.
One 2011 study looked into CBD’s effects on people with SAD (seasonal affective disorder) . SAD is a type of depression that sufferers experience through the winter months when it’s cold, wet, and dark.
People with SAD can experience sadness, lack of motivation, social anxiety, and unwarranted stress. When patients were administered 400-milligrams of CBD, they reported that overall anxiety levels were reduced.
Patients also reported a sense of calm and an uplifted feeling after consuming CBD.
2. CBD Provides Pain-Relief
The cannabinoid has the potential to relieve symptoms in people with chronic pain conditions. In fact, several studies have provided evidence that CBD can ease the pain when ingested and used directly on the skin as a topical.
CBD alone has excellent pain-relieving qualities so that isolates can be an effective treatment for pain conditions. However, one study suggested that CBD worked best when used alongside other cannabinoids like CBC, CBG, or THC rather than its own .
This could mean that full-spectrum CBD products are more effective in the treatment of pain. That’s not to say Isolates aren’t effective, though, just not quite as strong as full-spectrum.
3. CBD is an Anti-Inflammatory
Studies show that CBD has anti-inflammatory properties .
Research has discovered that CBD can relieve inflammation and pain in people with inflammatory conditions when used in topical and ingested forms.
With the potential to relieve arthritis, psoriasis, dermatitis, acne, and much more, the anti-inflammatory benefits of CBD are valuable to a wide group of people.
4. CBD May Alleviate Nausea
There’s limited scientific evidence that proves CBD is an effective anti-nausea drug. However, there is a lot of anecdotal evidence to suggest it’s effective.
Some cancer patients use CBD to reduce nausea and other side effects of cancer treatments and therapies with excellent results.
One study from 2011 suggests CBD can help with nausea due to its interaction with serotonin receptors . The study involved animal testing and found that their nausea response was greatly reduced when CBD was administered to rats.
5. CBD Has Neuroprotective Properties
CBD’s interaction with the endocannabinoid system and other signaling systems in the brain may suggest that it’s an effective treatment for neurological disorders.
CBD’s neuroprotective benefits have been widely studied in epilepsy and multiple sclerosis patients.
One study found that CBD and other cannabinoids (including THC) reduced spasms in patients with multiple sclerosis .
It’s important to note that most of the studies exploring the neuroprotective benefits of CBD have involved full-spectrum CBD products with 0.03% THC (sometimes more). This could indicate that CBD isolates aren’t as useful for treating neurological disorders.
6. The List Goes on…
Numerous studies have looked into CBD as a potential treatment for all manner of health issues.
Although research in some areas is still in its early days, CBD has huge potential. Below is a list of some of the health conditions CBD may be able to treat:
CBD Isolate: How It’s Made?
So, how is CBD isolate made?
There’s no specific extraction process to produce CBD isolate. However, most manufacturers use one of two methods — CO2 extraction or ethanol extraction.
Both processes are relatively simple.
Simplicity aside, to produce a 100% pure product, a lot of skill is needed alongside a laboratory full of expensive equipment.
One final step is needed to separate the CBD from the other cannabinoids and terpenes present. This step is called winterization.
Let’s take an in-depth look into the production steps of pure CBD isolate:
1. CO2 Extraction
CO2 extraction is arguably the most efficient way of extracting CBD. When done properly, it’s the cleanest extraction method and leaves the least amount of residual chemicals.
CO2 kept under high pressure is used to extract all of the cannabinoids and terpenes from the raw hemp flower.
The CO2 is blasted through a machine that holds the raw flower in the path of the gas. A liquid is collected below that contains the CBD, still with all the other cannabinoids present.
The excess liquid is then evaporated to leave a pure cannabinoid extract behind in the form of oil. Left at this stage, the oil is full-spectrum.
2. Ethanol Extraction
Ethanol extraction uses pure alcohol to extract CBD and other cannabinoids from the raw hemp flower.
When the plant matter is suspended in the solvent, it releases cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds in the hemp plant’s makeup. The plant material is strained off, and a cannabinoid-infused liquid is left behind.
From here, the excess alcohol is evaporated to leave a residual cannabinoid oil behind. Left at this stage, the oil is full-spectrum.
Once the cannabinoids have been extracted using either CO2 or ethanol extraction, the CBD must be separated from the other cannabinoids in the oil. As mentioned, after extraction is full-spectrum, the oil left behind, so to turn it into a CBD isolate, this final step is essential.
To do this, manufacturers use a process called winterization.
The cannabis oil (with all cannabinoids present) that has been extracted using the methods above is suspended in a solvent.
The solvent is then frozen until a pure CBD isolate powder that contains no other cannabinoids is separated.
This powder is then collected, and the rest of the extraction is discarded.
From here, the powder can then be dissolved in a beneficial oil, used in edibles, capsules, topicals, or kept in its raw form to use as a supplement for food and drinks.
Is CBD Isolate Better Than Full & Broad Spectrum CBD?
Research suggests that full- and broad spectrum CBD is a more valuable treatment for a wider range of health conditions .
It’s believed that CBD is more effective when consumed alongside other cannabinoids. A full cannabinoid profile is more efficient than singular cannabinoid extractions. This phenomenon is known as the entourage effect.
That being said, CBD isolates still have excellent potential in the health space.
Many studies have been done on pure CBD isolates, and although the conclusion that full-spectrum oils are better, isolates are still effective in treating some conditions.
You may prefer to use a CBD isolate because you want to avoid THC and other cannabinoids entirely. Perhaps you react badly to some other cannabinoids or would prefer to steer clear of full-spectrum products for other reasons.
There are pros and cons to using CBD isolates, just as there are for full- and broad spectrum products.
Let’s take a look at a few of them:
CBD Isolate: Pros & Cons
- Contains only CBD
- Plenty of product variety
- No risk of showing up on a drug test
- Suitable for people with adverse reactions to other cannabinoids
- Raw oil tastes less than full & broad spectrum CBD oil
- No entourage effect
- May not be a suitable treatment for some condition
Full-Spectrum CBD: Pros & Cons
- Full entourage effect
- Wide product variety
- Can treat a range of health conditions
- May show up on drug tests as it contains trace amounts of THC
- Not suitable for people that react to certain cannabinoids or terpenes
- Raw oil has a taste that’s unappealing to some
Broad Spectrum CBD: Pros & Cons
- Has the entourage effect to some extent (minus the THC)
- Wide product variety
- Effective for multiple health issues
- Doesn’t show up on drug tests
- Doesn’t have the full entourage effect
- Raw oil has an unappealing taste to some
How to Use CBD Isolate?
There are several ways to use CBD isolate.
There is a way to use CBD isolates for everyone, from oils and edibles to topicals and vapes. How you consume CBD is purely down to you, but the most bioavailable methods are oils and vapes.
1. CBD Isolate Oil
CBD oil is the most available form of CBD isolates available.
It can be administered using a dropper to apply small amounts of the oil under the tongue. Drops can also be added to food and drinks.
CBD oil is excellent if you want to monitor your dosages closely. It gives you ultimate flexibility over your dosage because you can adjust the amount of oil taken by dropping more or less oil under the tongue.
Although you get great flexibility with dosages by using CBD oil, it isn’t easy to accurately administer a specific dose as well as you would with edible products.
2. CBD Edibles
CBD edibles come in many forms. They provide you with a tasty way to consume pure CBD accurately.
Each CBD edible — such as a gummy, honey stick, or lollypop — has a precise dose of CBD.
Potencies can vary between products — however, if you purchase a pack of gummies, you can be certain that every piece in the pack has the same amount of CBD.
Edibles are excellent if you hate the taste of raw CBD isolate oil but want to consume the cannabinoid orally. They’re also perfect if you’re concerned about how much CBD you’re consuming and want to monitor your dosages closely.
3. CBD Isolate Capsules
CBD Capsules have an accurate dose of CBD inside each pill-shaped capsule.
Capsules come in dry and soft gel forms. Both are taken as you would with any other pill-form medication, supplement, or vitamin.
Like edibles, capsules give you great control over the dose. Each capsule is loaded accurately with the amount of CBD stated by the manufacturer.
They’re great if you want a completely tasteless way to consume CBD while having complete control over the amount you’re consuming.
4. CBD Topicals
CBD topicals come in many forms. Unlike the previous three consumption methods, topicals are not consumed orally.
You’ll find creams, balms, and gels that can be applied to the skin to reduce pain and inflammation. You will also find bath bombs, soaps, roll-ons, and much more.
Topicals are great if you’re suffering from a skin condition such as eczema, acne, or psoriasis. Used in conjunction with an orally consumed form of CBD allows you to combat an inflammatory disorder or skin condition from two angles.
5. CBD Vaporizers
Vapable CBD isolate is an extremely effective way to consume CBD. The cannabinoid is absorbed in the lung tissue much more efficiently when inhaled as opposed to eating.
The biggest worry when using vapable CBD is the potential damage to the lungs. Although vaping is much healthier than smoking, it’s unclear what the health implications are.
It’s also not advisable to use CBD vaporizers if you suffer from a respiratory issue such as asthma.
Possible health risks aside, vaping CBD is a highly bioavailable way to consume CBD. It’s a great way to use CBD if you’re suffering from stress, anxiety, or depression.
Can You Make Anything With CBD Isolate?
Depending on the type of CBD isolate you have, you can make various edibles and topicals at home.
CBD oil can be used in your daily diet. You can mix it with your morning coffee, your lunchtime sandwiches, or your evening dinner.
If you want to get a bit more creative, you can have a go at baking your own CBD edible snacks or making gummies, jellies, and other sweet treats.
You can also make your own topicals from CBD oil. Using normal moisturizing creams, balms, and soaps, you can mix in high-potency CBD oil to create your own topicals.
Making topicals is perfect if you want to turn your favorite cream or balm into a medical product. If your skin is super-sensitive and you have a specific cream that works for you, this is a great way to apply your CBD topically without risking a flare-up.
Final Thoughts: Is CBD Isolate Worth Your Time?
CBD isolate isn’t as valuable medically as full and broad spectrum CBD.
That doesn’t mean it’s useless, though.
CBD isolates are perfect for people who negatively react to other cannabinoids but still want to try CBD to treat their condition.
This article should have given you everything you need to know about CBD isolate, but to recap, here are a few bullet points to summarize:
- CBD Isolate contains CBD without any other cannabinoids or terpenes
- CBD has many benefits but isn’t as valuable as full- and broad spectrum products
- CBD isolates come in many forms, from oils & topicals to vape liquids & edibles
- CBD isolates will not show up on drug tests
- CBD is extracted using CO2 or ethanol & further processed during winterization
References Used In This Article
- Pgacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system is an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological Reviews, 58(3), 389-462.
- Crippa, J. A. S., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., … & Hallak, J. E. C. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of psychopharmacology, 25(1), 121-130.
- Russo, E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult-to-treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245.
- Atalay, S., Jarocka-Karpowicz, I., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2020). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol. Antioxidants, 9(1), 21.
- Parker, L. A., Rock, E. M., & Limebeer, C. L. (2011). Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids. British journal of pharmacology, 163(7), 1411-1422.
- Flachenecker, P., Henze, T., & Zettl, U. K. (2014). Nabiximols (THC/CBD oromucosal spray, Sativex®) in clinical practice-results of a multicenter, non-interventional study (MOVE 2) in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity. European neurology, 71(5-6), 271-279.
- Russo, E. B. (2019). The case for the entourage effect and conventional breeding of clinical cannabis: no “strain,” no gain. Frontiers in plant science, 9, 1969.
Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.