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The Mt. Royal Chalet looks pretty in the wintertime!

While the building – Place Ville Marie – itself might just be another office building in downtown Montreal, you’ll want to head for the top for the incredible views. Standing at 185 metres, the “Observatoire” is a top attraction that not only includes views across the city – but includes a restaurant/bar, as well! You can even download an audio guide so you know what you are looking at.

Where to Stay in Montreal

Currently, you can do tours of the Olympic Stadium but going up the tower is closed indefinitely. However, you can still photograph the tower because it’s a feat of engineering. Outside the stadium, there is always something going on at The Esplanade – a very unique outdoor events space.

Mont Royal is where Montreal gets her namesake from and one of the quintessential Montreal places to visit. Also known as “The Mountain” by Montrealers, this green space in the middle of the city is actually a large volcanic related hill which is part of the Monteregie Hill situated between the Laurentians and the Appalachian Mountains.

Address: 1255 Boulevard Saint-Joseph, Lachine, H8S 2M2

Secondary dispersal is an important stage in the life cycle of tree species, determining the fate of a high proportion of all seeds. For small-seeded species both physical and biological processes may influence the secondary fate of seeds, however the relative importance of these processes is not well known. Seeds of the pioneer tree species Cecropia insignis (seed mass 0.5 mg), Trema micrantha (2.5 mg) and Apeiba aspera (14.2 mg) and five types of artificial seed were sown in understorey, treefall-gap and large-gap sites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, during the wet season of 2005. Sowing areas were excavated after periods up to 26 d and cores divided into depths of 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–50 mm to allow high-resolution estimation of the rate and amount of burial and displacement of seeds. Over 26 d, 2.8% of artificial seeds were buried to a mean depth of 10.5 mm below the soil surface and 43.9% of unburied seeds displaced laterally >5 cm. Significantly more (87.9% and 80.9%) seeds of Cecropia insignis and Trema micrantha were displaced than artificial seeds of similar mass, size and density. A generalised linear model suggested that burial mostly occurred within 15 d, while displacement occurred continuously up to 26 d. The dominant cause of displacement and burial was probably rainfall, while seed removal by ants may also have contributed to displacement.

Few studies have investigated the behavior, properties, and influence of wildfire in riparian areas. Riparian forests generally have more available moisture and may differ in understory vegetation, fuel loads, and fuel moisture from adjacent uplands. In these communities, especially in moist forest types, fire typically has longer return intervals and is less severe than in adjacent uplands [61].

In North America, reed canarygrass begins to grow in early spring, typically April [5,133,157,294,301]. One report from the Great Plains [117] and another from New Jersey [171] indicate that reed canarygrass seedlings emerge in the spring. In the Pacific Northwest, reed canarygrass may begin to grow in late winter (review by [5]). Reed canarygrass continues to grow vertically throughout the spring and early summer ([301], review by [133]) and then may start to expand laterally via rhizomes (review by [133]). In Oregon, reed canarygrass grows substantially in the spring before flood waters recede [301]. Various reviews from the Pacific Northwest [148], Illinois [133], and Wisconsin [157] indicate that reed canarygrass’ growth peaks in mid-June and declines by mid-August. On an experimental site in Ohio, reed canarygrass rhizome production peaked in June and declined through August. Peak rhizome production was associated with a decline in culm production [62,63].

Fire adaptations: Reed canarygrass establishes rapidly after fire on sites where it occurs in the prefire plant community (see Plant response to fire), suggesting that it is adapted to survive and regenerate after fire. Few studies describe fire characteristics or indicate whether postfire establishment of reed canarygrass is from sprouting or seed germination.

FIRE EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT

Reed canarygrass spreads within established populations by creeping rhizomes ([80], reviews by [133,184,228,277]) and tillers [46,153,193,219] and colonizes new sites by seed (review by [184]). Ribbon grass may be sterile [14].

One study in Minnesota found that reed canarygrass may be reduced when postfire herbicide treatments are timed to coincide with periods of optimal carbohydrate accumulation (see Seasonal development) to facilitate translocation of herbicide to rhizomes. To control a near monoculture of reed canarygrass, researchers combined May prescribed fire with various herbicide treatments. A native mix of graminoid and herbaceous species was seeded on the site shortly after the fire. Reed canarygrass biomass was reduced when fire was followed by either spring (mid-May) or fall (late August and late September) applications of herbicide. Reed canarygrass biomass was 75% less in the spring-herbicide treatment than in control plots and 90% less in the fall-herbicide treatment. Differences were attributed to improved translocation of the herbicide to the rhizome during periods of carbohydrate accumulation. However, reed canarygrass continued to dominate the site, preventing native species from establishing, even after 2 seasons of spring burning and fall herbicide application [1].

Reed canarygrass rhizome fragments sprout in controlled environments [22,196] and likely do so in the wild. Reed canarygrass abundance in a monotypic stand was reduced 1 year after soil scarification, but plants continued to sprout from rhizome fragments [148]. Reed canarygrass regrows following cutting, mowing, or other types of damage ([82,148,161,260,301], review by [251]) probably from its rhizomes and possibly from its root crown.

Howe [126,127,129] has conducted the only studies to date (2010) that investigate differential effects of fire season without other, confounding treatments. This research indicates reed canarygrass may be reduced by spring burning and increased by summer burning, but summer burning is unlikely to favor reed canarygrass to the point where it becomes dominant in areas previously dominated by warm-season grasses. Details of Howe’s studies are described in the research project summary, Herbaceous responses to seasonal burning in experimental tallgrass prairie plots.