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weed seed viability

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Communications in Plant Sciences | 2020 | vol.10 | p.046-051
DOI:
10.26814/cps2020007 | Article code: cps2020007
Keywords: Lolium multiflorum Lam., Burndown, Non-viable seed, Pre-harvest management, Alternative practices

Lower germination percentages were found for all herbicides applied, regardless of the phenological stages evaluated compared to the control, in which the germination was of 89% (Table 2). Herbicides application at pre-spike and anthesis stages caused strong reduction in germination (decreases greater than 98%), except for iodosulfuron-methyl applied after the anthesis stage, with the germination of 21% (Table 2). In wheat plants, recent studies have been reporting the negative effects on seed germination after paraquat and glyphosate application due to the oxidative damage of membranes caused when herbicides are applied in the pre-harvest (Bellé et al. 2014, Perboni et al. 2018). The increase of dead seeds occurred for all herbicides applied in the pre-spike and anthesis stages, with decreases greater than 98%, except for iodosulfuron-methyl applied at anthesis in which dead seeds were only 76% (Table 2). Furthermore, late herbicide application reduced the percentage of dead seeds, especially for iodosulfuron-methyl applied at grain filling, with 66% of dead seeds. Herbicides are chemical substances that modify several physiological processes, affecting grain filling and seed quality, especially for applications performed before seed maturity (Jaskulski and Jaskulska 2014). Wheat burndown with ammonium-glufosinate, clethodim or paraquat can reduce the initial growth of seedlings due to the incomplete formation and lower seed weight (Krenchinski et al. 2017).

Pre-harvest herbicide application reduces the Italian ryegrass seed viability

Correspondence to: Joanei Cechin <[email protected]>

Table 2. Percentage of germination, dead seeds, viable and non-viable seeds after paraquat, ammonium-glufosinate, iodosulfuron-methyl and clethodim application for seed inviabilization of Italian ryegrass in different phenological stages.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Herbicide application up to the anthesis developmental stages reduces seed production, 1000 seeds weight, and seed viability.
2. Paraquat was the best herbicide to reduce seed production per plant, 1000-seeds weight and, viability of Italian ryegrass seeds, regardless of development stages.
3. Reducing future infestations of Italian ryegrass in cropping systems depends on herbicide application before the grain filling.