Did you know that CBD oil can come from hemp or marijuana? Most CBD oil does contain THC which is a psychoactive chemical. Will it get you high? Learn more. CBD oil and hemp oils are a growing presence on the health care landscape – what are they and do they really work?
What is CBD Oil?
CBD oil is an oil created by extracting cannabidiol from a cannabis or hemp plant and can vary in levels of other cannabinoids or plant compounds. In Australia, CBD oil is legal both via prescription by a doctor and over the counter in pharmacies Australia wide.
- CBD stands for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in the cannabis plant.
- CBD oil is created by extracting CBD and other chemical compounds from the cannabis or hemp plant.
- While some CBD oil contains THC, it will not get you high.
CBD Oil In Australia
There are many reasons you might want to learn about CBD oil (cannabidiol oil). When you look at the cannabis industry, CBD oil is still one of the most talked-about topics. People throw around the term CBD regularly with relation to medical cannabis; Frequently these same individuals don’t actually know what CBD oil is.
In Australia, there are various types of CBD oil available by prescription. And, as of Feb 1, 2021, low dose CBD oil is legal in pharmacies only (not online). And, we won’t actually see CBD oil over the counter until 2022 and onward.
Even so, there are online shops that claim to sell CBD oil in Australia. While they probably are selling some sort of CBD, it’s not legal.
Whether you have heard friends or family talking about CBD, you think it might benefit you for a medical condition, or you feel like it’s a good supplement for your health and wellness regime, this article is for you. In this article, you’ll learn answers to the following questions:
What is CBD Oil?
To answer the question, “What is CBD Oil,” you first need to know what CBD is.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a natural and non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant and is abundant in hemp. CBD is one of cannabis’s non-psychoactive compounds. There is clinical evidence documenting the value that CBD has in treating some neuropsychiatric disorders (i.e. epilepsy, anxiety and schizophrenia). There are also hundreds of thousands of cases, real-world evidence rather than clinical evidence, where CBD oil and other CBD products are said to have helped people (and pets) with numerous other medical conditions.
So, what is CBD Oil?
CBD oil, or cannabidiol oil, is an oil created by extracting cannabidiol from a cannabis or hemp plant. The result is an oil that contains high concentrations of CBD and can vary in levels of other cannabinoids or plant compounds.
People use the term CBD to encompass many types of CBD extracts, and the use of the name has started to confuse people. CBD oils may have a range of cannabinoid profiles and medicinal or health benefits. It can come in any of the following product forms:
- Vape oils
There are also multiple types of CBD oil, including the following:
- PCR hemp oil or PCR CBD oil
- Full-Spectrum CBD
- Broad-spectrum CBD
- CBD Isolate
Later in this article, we’ll explain the different processes used to make CBD oil. The different types of oils have various chemical properties and benefits. Each type of CBD oil will suit different needs and requirements based on what profiles you want. We’ll discuss each of the types of CBD oil in-depth in the next article so you understand the pros and cons and can decide if one of them may be right for you.
Where does CBD (cannabidiol) come from?
Unlike other chemicals in cannabis, like flavonoids and terpenes, cannabidiol only exists in the cannabis plant. When we say the cannabis plant, we mean both hemp and what people think of as marijuana. For the remainder of this article, we’ll call “marijuana” cannabis and hemp…hemp. While hemp and cannabis come from the same species of plant, their cannabinoid and terpene profiles are different. As each type of plant has different chemical compound profiles, the CBD oils that come from each of the plants also have different profiles.
For example, hemp plants have very low levels of THC to begin with, usually .035% or less in Australia. So, for individuals who want to avoid THC, CBD from hemp may be a better option. Hemp also has a different spectrum of compounds which means that the therapeutic benefits may be different from other plants.
Cannabis plants produce a broader range of cannabinoids and other compounds, particularly THC. Until recently, hemp farmers had to grow vast amounts of hemp to produce CBD oil. Now hemp farmers are growing PCR (phytocannabinoid-rich) hemp plants which allow for smaller crops containing higher CBD yields.
How is CBD oil made?
In this section, we’ll give you an overview of CBD extraction methods. While these processes are incredibly detailed, we’ll give you the essential information, so you know what to look out for. There are multiple ways that CBD can be extracted from the cannabis or hemp plant and turned into CBD oil. The three most popular ways to extract CBD are:
- A CO2 extraction
- Oil Extractions
- A liquid solvent extraction
CO2 (carbon dioxide) Extraction Method
The CBD industry has grown rapidly over the past few years. With industry growth an the number of businesses making CBD, the CO2 (carbon dioxide) extraction method has become the most technically advanced and recommended way to make CBD oil. While it’s the most expensive of the popular methods, it makes the most potent, safe, and chlorophyll-free extraction. There are three types of CO2 extraction – supercritical, subcritical and mid-critical. We’ll cover supercritical, the most popular.
Supercritical CO2 extraction method
CO2 is usually a gas. Supercritical CO2 forms when CO2 is heated above 31.10C and put under pressure at 1071psi. It then takes on properties of both the gas and liquid (known as a supercritical liquid). Typically this process is done using a ‘closed-loop extractor’; a machine which has three main chambers and manipulates the CO2 states as well as extracts the cannabinoids and other compounds.
The process starts by putting ground cannabis into a container. Solid CO2, dry ice, is then pumped into the vessel and is converted from CO2 to Supercritical CO2 as it enters the chamber. The Supercritical CO2 runs through the plant materials and extracts the cannabinoids, trichomes and terpenes. The mixture is pumped into the third chamber where the contents are separated. The oil is then collected and the CO2 flows back to the original vessel for re-use.
Supercritical oil extraction kills off bacteria, mould and other contaminants left in CBD oil during other methods of extraction. This means that CO2 extracted CBD is likely better for those who already have compromised immune systems
Oil extraction method
The oil extraction method, typically olive oil, is one of the oldest extraction methods used today. People even use this extraction method at home. The first step to olive oil extraction is to decarboxylate the plant material. Decarboxylation is heating the plant to a specific temperature so that the chemical compounds become activated. Once the plant matter is decarboxylated, the oil and plant are mixed and heated again.
The cannabinoids are extracted when the oil and plant are heated together. Because the oils don’t evaporate, the resulting extract isn’t as concentrated as other methods. The main issue with oil extractions is that the oils are perishable and therefore must be stored in a cool and dry area which puts restrictions on consumers.
Liquid solvent extraction method
Solvent extractions often use low-grade alcohol, like ethanol or isopropyl, to extract the CBD. Solvent extraction is one of the cheaper and more dangerous ways to extract CBD as the chemicals used are highly flammable. This method often dissolves the plant waxes, which contain nutrients and may also extract chlorophyll which can give the CBD a bitter taste. While filtering removes chlorophyll, the filtering also reduces the oil’s potency.
After harvesting, the cannabis or hemp is placed in a container where the cannabinoids are extracted. The plants are either soaked or have the solvents run through the materials, stripping the cannabinoids from the plant. Once complete, the liquid is then put through an evaporation process where it’s heated and leaves the cannabinoid concentrates in an oil form. In some cases, solvent residue exists post evaporation. These residues can be harmful to humans, and some studies have found traces of petroleum and other nasties in CBDs from solvent extractions.
After any extraction process, the resulting oil has all of the cannabinoids and other compounds that weren’t lost in the process. The initial oil extraction is called full-spectrum oil. The extraction is then refined and purified to make CBD isolate or broad-spectrum oil.
Now that you understand how CBD oil is made, you know what to say when speaking with your doctor or when looking for the product that’s right for you.
From a medical standpoint, doctors can prescribe CBD only medication, CBD and THC medication and THC only medications. A THC only medication is not CBD oil.
Critical Note: Roadside drug tests in Australia, tongue tests, look for the presence of THC. If you have a CBD oil that contains even trace amounts of THC, you may test positive for THC in a roadside test. The presence of THC in your system does not necessarily mean you’re impaired. You can learn more about CBD, cannabis and driving in our article about cannabis and driving.
In conclusion, CBD oil is an oil created by extracting cannabidiol from cannabis or hemp plants. It contains a high quantity of CBD and may contain very little or no THC. Depending on what type of plant, cannabis or hemp, and the method of extraction, the CBD oil you get will have different medicinal properties. CO2 extraction is the cleanest method of creating CBD oil but will also be the most expensive.
In the next part of our guide to CBD oil series, you’ll learn about how CBD oil works on your body and what the effects and benefits of taking CBD oil are.
CBD Oil vs. Hemp Oil: What’s the Difference?
CBD oil and hemp oil have different scientific elements, but both claim to fight common ailments that are giving the oils a growing fan base.
Oct 5, 2020 1:02 PM EDT
With marijuana usage rising as more U.S. states legalize the controversial but commercially available herb, a cottage industry has developed around the use of marijuana with various claims of healthy attributes on multiple medical fronts.
Officially, marijuana is deemed as Schedule I herbal substance by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, meaning the drug offers “no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse,” according to the federal government. That categorization was adjusted after the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which included a provision that separated hemp from marijuana, as noted in the Controlled Subject Act.
Millions of users and a growing number of health specialists disagree with any negative tone, noting that marijuana (Cannabis) has health-improving components that deserve a closer look by the medical community.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, “marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The plant contains the mind-altering chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other related compounds. Extracts can also be made from the cannabis plant.”
Virtually all of the health care products derived from the cannabis plant centers around two primary components – CBD (Cannabidiol) oil and hemp oil. Each is used and sold as natural health remedies and, even as they share certain characteristics, they have some important differences, too.
CBD Oil. vs. Hemp Oil
Let’s take a closer look at hemp oil and CBD oil and see how they compare – and how they differ.
What Is CBD Oil?
CBD oil is derived from the Cannabis sativa plant and is known scientifically as cannabidiol. CBD is one of 120 known chemical compounds embedded in marijuana plants and differs from hemp in that it contains Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the primary psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.
THC levels vary from plant to plant and CBD is largely considered by scientists not to be psychoactive on its own, but foes contain health-improving components that aid individuals suffering from a wide array of medical issues, including high blood pressure, anxiety, and trouble sleeping, among other maladies.
What health care providers want from CBD is the oil – the main component in the growing number of CBD-based alternative health care products on the marketplace.
CBD oil is extracted from the cannabis plant and then mixed with other herbs and oils to create the CBD oils most often seen in health care products and sold to the public, with varying degrees of validation from health care professionals.
What Is Hemp Oil?
Hemp oil is also derived from Cannabis sativa, which contains the chemical element trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cannabis component that gives marijuana its psychosomatic kick. Hemp oil is extracted from the leaves, petals and seeds from a hemp plant.
Yet Cannabis sativa plants have different levels of THC and that is a major factor in defining hemp oil versus CBD oil. Basically, any cannabis sativa plant that contains more than 0.3% of THC is considered to be marijuana. Anything less than 0.3% THC is considered hemp.
Thus even though Cannabis sativa and hemp a derived from the very same plant species, they are different based on the levels of THC embedded in the plant.
What both CBD oil and hemp oil do have in common is neither is linked to THC and therefore won’t provide that psychological “high” so often attributed to THC.
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Instead, the human body manages cannabinoids through its endocannabinoid system, also known as ECS, which can process CBD and hemp oil through the body and is managed by the human brain, which uses cannabinoids to regulate the body’s physiological reactions to the herb, and help better manage key human elements like eating, sleeping, dealing with pains and illnesses, and improving mood.
Structurally, the primary variance between hemp oil and CBD oil is that hemp oil can only be extracted from a hemp plant. That’s not the case with CBD oil, which can be extracted from a variety of plants, including hemp plants, marijuana plants, and select other plants, as well.
CBD Oil and Hemp Oil Potential Uses
CBD oil and hemp oil do share similar chemical attributes and are touted as health care solutions to various ailments. CBD oil and hemp oil are often used as a natural supplement to improve human health in the following areas:
Anxiety. CBD oil is known as a relaxant, with little or no side effects with regular usage.
Depression. According to a number of clinical studies, CBD seems to positively impact serotonin receptors in the human brain, which improves a person’s emotional state and supports better emotional well-being. That’s a helpful attribute for anyone suffering from depression.
Pain relief. Some health experts say that CBD oil can help alleviate chronic pain, primarily by curbing inflammation that can trigger waves of pain on the human body. The oil can also promote better sleep, which can, in turn, fight back against sleep interruption for people experiencing chronic pains, and help cure insomnia in the process.
Skincare. CBD oil is also known to improve a variety of human skin issues, including acne, wrinkles, brown spots. CBD has the anti-inflammatory ingredients to help clear up and prevent acne, while it also has the anti-oxidants to curb aging skin.
Blood pressure. Scientists say that CBD can also aid the lowering of blood pressure in humans, mainly by reducing the body’s systolic pressure in the arteries as the human heart pumps blood. By taking a moderate dosage of CBD oil, some health experts say, an individual can improve blood flow, lower the heart rate and reduce the anxiety the stress often found in patients with high blood pressure.
As a vitamin supplement. Hemp oil, in particular, holds high doses of important vitamins, like Vitamins E, B, B1 and B2. Hemp oil is also an invaluable source of protein and antioxidants and contains high levels of helpful body supplements like potassium, magnesium and fatty acids. (which can also help cure maladies like acne and psoriasis, and is known to improve the human body’s cholesterol levels.
Proper Usage of CBD Oil and Hemp Oil
What are the best ways to use and inject cannabis oils? While delivery mechanisms can vary, the safest and most productive method of taking cannabis oils are as follows:
Ingest the oils orally. CBD oil consumers can also take doses orally, usually by the chewing of hard candy, mints or gummies. Oral usage takes full advantage of the sublingual gland, located right under the tongue, which helps take in the oils faster and more completely, but in a safer and easier manner than injection.
Via beverages. You can also drink cannabis-related beverages (like tea or juices) to intake the oils, but just know that anything that has to pass through the body’s digestive system reduces the bioavailability impact of cannabis oils.
Whatever course you take, keep your general practitioner in the loop and make sure to thoroughly vet any CBD or hemp oil products before hitting “buy” on your phone or dishing out cash at an alternative health product store.
Like any other over-the-counter health care product, CBD oils and hemp oils can vary in the quality of the product, and there are certainly plenty of fly-by-night operators out there looking to rip you off with a no- or low-quality cannabis-based product.
Do your due diligence, read up on cannabis oils, and ask around among family and friends to get their take on cannabis oils they’ve used.
After all, the more research you do, the higher your chances of optimizing your CBD or hemp oil experience.